Louise Martin, the Cultural Heritage Officer for the Headlands to Headspace initiative within the Morecambe Bay Partnership, was our September speaker. Louise presented examples of the recent archeological work; Barrow’s Military History on Walney Island, Gleaston Castle, three sites on Birkrigg Common, Hampsfell Hospice and Kirkland Tower, two sites at Jenny Barrows Point, and Warton Craggs on the south shore of the Bay. For each site available documentary evidence had been brought together and detailed recording carried out using ground survey, aerial photography using drones and geophysical surveys. One use of the data was to create dramatic 3D images. An archeological dig had been carried out at Jenny Brown’’s point. Conservation assessments were carried out and necessary restoration work identified. The projects were often carried out in partnership with Universities and all involved volunteers. Training was a key element in all the projects. The report for all the projects would be available on line.
The Walney sites included pillboxes, searchlight emplacements and gun battery foundations. At Gleaston Castle the surveys had shown an earlier tower near the thirteenth century manorial buildings, and the location of enclosing walls. The Birkrigg work had involved three sites on the Common. A major task had involved bracken removal both to reveal and protect the stone circles protect: 40 ton bags of bracken were removed in 2015. At Appleby Slack a small living enclosure and a larger stock enclosure had been identified. Documentary evidence and old photographs had been brought together for Hampsfell Hospice and Kirkhead Tower and condition assessments carried out. The chimney at Jenny Brown’s Point was shown to be associated with a calcining furnace linked to possible copper mining. A large embankment running 2km into the Bay was the remnants of a failed land restoration scheme. LIDAR had been used at Warton Craggs to clearly show the three series of remparts whish are masked by trees. They are probably hill top enclosures rather than a hill fort.
Kevin Grice gave an entertaining and informative talk on a relatively hidden aspect of our local history. It seems that the Dad’s army of WW2 was not the first time that Volunteer Forces had been used in military history.
A number of events in the mid nineteenth century including the Indian Mutiny of 1857, the limited effectiveness of the Crimean War, and an assassination attempt on the life of Napoleon the Third in 1858 which involved a grenade made in Birmingham all raised fears of a possible French invasion in 1859. Thus RVC’s ( Rifle Volunteer Corps) were formed all over the country with Lancashire over the Sands and Kendal being no exceptions.
He talked principally about the rifle ranges which were created to fulfil the 24 days a year target practice the RVC’s enlisters were required to carry out. Needless to say these sites were of necessity in relatively isolated areas and amongst those he discussed in detail was the site at Silver How, above Grasmere. Others noted were on Torver Common another at Helsfell, Kendal and one even in Cartmel at Holker Bank in what is today part of the Cistercian Way.
Simon Williams, chairman of the Mourholme local history society which covers the Carnforth, Arnside and Silverdale area gave a lively and interesting talk in April 2017 about two boating disasters in Morecambe Bay. The first known as the Kent’s bank tragedy of 1850 involved the North family and their guests from Know Hill Lodge, Lineth ( the name was changed to Silverdale in 1930) The family and boatmen set off for lunch in Kent’s Bank Hotel in a Lancashire Nobby but the young men and boatsmen delayed their return by visiting the bar. Tragedy struck whilst they were rowing back and a verdict of accidental death was reported.
The other accident happened in 1894 and involved members of the Riley family,mill workers from Queen St. Burnley, during their September Wakes week holiday to Morecambe : its details survive due to the daughter Fanny’s diary. A thirty three foot Lancashire Nobby called the Matchless overloaded with 34 day trippers ,was being sailed single handed by Samuel Houghton from Morecambe to Kent’s Bank via Jenny Brown Point. The boat was caught broadside by a gust of wind at Jenny Brown Point and it sank in seconds. Very few of them could swim and their clogs hindered them despite help from a nearby boat. Fanny Riley 9 and her brother Ben 7 and an engaged couple were amongst the 9 survivors. The King’s Arms in Morecambe acted as both a mortuary and the location where the inquest was held. Identification of the bodies was left to the landladies in Morecambe. Despite being overloaded, the authorities accepted no responsibility for the inadequate licensing regulations.
Members of the Society time-travelled back to the Victorian era at the June 2018 lecture through a selection of photographs taken by John Garnett of Windermere (Photographer, Post Master, Printer, Bookseller and Chemist) at the end of the 19th Century. Ian explained the different type of glass negatives (full plate, half plate and stereoscopic pair) and that if properly stored the images are permanent. The photographs required an exposure time of 10 to 20 seconds or the images would be blurred, but most of the photographs were extremely clear even when he zoomed in to show particular features. The photographs shown included the shore at Grange-over-Sands (after the railway but before the promenade was built ie c1868); Holker Hall (before the 1871 fire which destroyed the West Wing); High Fold Farm at Troutbeck (showing Peggy Longmire on her 100th birthday in 1864); Bowness (both before and after the promenade was built); and Windermere Station (c 1900 featuring horse-drawn coaches built in Windermere). Ian displayed a wealth of knowledge of local history which enabled him to date the photographs very accurately.
Ian Gee, a Director and Trustee of the Lakes Flying Company, gave an absorbing and fascinating Talk to a large audience about “Aviation on Windermere 1909-1919”, describing how Edward Wakefield pioneered flight from water on Windermere.
Wakefield built hangars at Bowness and used boat engineers from Barrow to adapt an Avro plane as a seaplane. Despite widespread ridicule “Waterbird” made the first successful flight from water 25th November 1911 from the Lake. The pilot sat at the front with the engine and propellers at the rear. The float was stepped, (a crucial adaptation) and the outriggers made from bamboo.
Wakefield recognised early on the military advantages of seaplanes for scouting purposes as land- based aircraft at the time did not have the range to reach enemy lines. During World War I Windermere was an important centre for training Naval Pilots and the first seaplanes were used 25th December 1914 against Zeppelin bases in Germany.
A replica of the “Waterbird” is currently being built and approaching “air worthiness”.
Despite the cold, windy evening a few brave members attended Dr Suzanne Tiplady’s March 2018 lecture on 300 years of schooling in Satterthwaite. A church survey of 1718 referred to local education for the poor. Poor parents paid 1p per week to Satterthwaite’s curate who was licensed to be a teacher. Richer parents’ children went to Grammar Schools at Hawkshead or Cartmel. We were entertained by stories about successive school teachers some of whom were also curates. Increasing population led to a school being built because the Chapel was deemed unsuitable and in 1850 money was raised from across the district to build a replacement, joint, village school for Satterthwaite and Rusland with a grand house for the teacher. Donations were received from William Wordsworth and people from the Cartmel area. Shakespeare was taught and teaching was rated as excellent but the introduction of compulsory education in 1876 caused standards to fall and needlework was the only subject mentioned. Information about many of the teachers was illustrated with pictures. The school closed in July 2006 when there were only 9 pupils and 1 teacher left.
In October 2017, Dr. Rob David gave a fascinating talk on the fate of the those men retaining their German/Austrian nationality were mostly interned, including an enclave of German miners at Nenthead and hotel waiters from Keswick. Losing the wage-earner left many families in great poverty.
Those who were naturalised British had mixed fortunes, especially when “Germanaphobia” spiked after events such as the sinking of the “Lusitania” and horror stories from Belgian refugees. Some pork butchers in Barrow had their windows smashed, and “spy fever” fuelled by the media led to the German wife of an ex MP near Whitehaven being interned. This followed a U Boat attack on Lowca Coke Ovens. Some others however lived unmolested.
After the War most were deported but some such as the Head Waiter from Keswick were allowed to remain. Some families were never reunited.
At the end of Rob’s lecture, he mentioned his interest in the Trapp family and Harry Mudd of Grange. Subsequently Pat Rowland has been helping Rob with his research and Rob has produced two papers which are both on this website:
The Trapp Family of Grange-over-Sands during the First World War
Harry Mudd of Grange-over-Sands